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Hand-knotted rugs are woven on so-called warp yarns with pile threads and knotting completely by hand. A frame is prepared first. Various threads are knotted on the warp threads lined up side by side in a straight line on the frame. These knotted nodes form the loop order. A row of weft should be thrown on top of this. This process tightens the loop order.
Two types of knotting technique are used in hand-knotted rugs. The first of these is the Ghiordes knot. The Ghiordes knot is also called Turkish knot and the most important feature is that it is symmetrical. Another knot technique used is the Persian knot, also called the Senneh knot. The feature of this knot is that it is asymmetrical.
On the hand-knotted rugs in Turkey, in the Caucasus and in the western and northwestern Iran the Turkish knot technique is used. Turkish knots are not used in the hand-knotted rugs of Isparta and Hereke. Persian Knot is widely used in rugs woven in Central Asia, especially in Central and Eastern Iran.
Knot density used in rugs is important in terms of rug quality, but there are other factors that determine the quality of hand-knotted rugs. One of these is the quality of the yarn used and the other is the quality of the dye used. Therefore, excessive knot density is not the only indicator on the quality of the rug.
Some motifs of hand-knotted authentic rugs are so difficult that it takes months or even years to weave. Therefore, this type of carpet is very expensive.
If the knott yarn used in hand-knotted rugs is silk, the woven rug is called silk rug. There are differences in weaving and frequency in Turkish silk rugs. Density in rugs is the most important factor in creating a smooth appearance. Since silk is both thin and slippery, density is very important in terms of appearing properly. In silk rugs, if the density decreases, geometric patterns appear.
If hand-knotted silk rugs are woven in Anatolian style, they usually consist of 9, 16 or 25 knotts.
Motifs are almost the same as wool rug motifs. Another type of silk rugs are called palace carpets. Naturalist floral motifs are at the forefront in this type of rug. Although the Ottoman palace carpets were touched with the Iran knot at first, it was passed to the Turkish knot completely afterwards.
Throw Rug is a thin and short type of rug. Hand-woven rug has great importance in Turkish handicrafts. Throw rugs are produced in a shorter time and cheaper. They can be used in upholstery, cedars, walls and floors. The motifs used in throw rugs are generally the same as those used in carpets. Geometric shapes are preferred more because they are woven easily and quickly.
Certain motifs come to the fore in hand-knotted classic rugsand throw rugs. The ‘’hands on hips’’, geometric shapes, animal figures, plants and flowers are the main ones.
Hand-knotted rugs have many artistic, historical and authentic features as well as they are quite durable. These classic rugs are precious pieces that can be passed down from generation to generation.